ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MANAGEMENT IN PJSC RUSHYDRO
Environmental activities of PJSC RusHydro are carried out in accordance with the Company’s approved Environmental Policy, which is based on the provisions of the state policy in the field of environmental development, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and other normative legal acts, international treaties of the Russian Federation in the field of environmental protection and a rational use of natural resources.
The Company also respects the requirements of international standards in the field of environmental safety and the best foreign experience of the hydropower industry.
The RusHydro's activities are aimed at minimizing the negative environmental impact and preserving the environment in a favourable condition for present and future generations. This principle is enshrined in the PJSC RusHydro’s Environmental Policy, which is the basis for planning and implementing majority of business activities. The document was revised and adopted in 2016. Its goal is to identify challenges of ecological safety, together with objectives, tasks and mechanisms to improve the environmental safety level of the existing and projected hydro generation facilities. The Policy applies to all structural divisions of the Company (excluding RAO ES of the East), and its provisions are included in the PJSC RusHydro’s business relations with partners.
It is planned to develop the Environmental Policy of RusHydro Group in the context of adoption of the Environmental Safety Strategy of the Russian Federation for the period until 2025 , that determined the main directions for improvement of the environmental safety level, and integration of the executive offices of PJSC RusHydro and RAO ES of the East.
Environmental Impact Management in RAO ES of the East
The Environmental policy of PJSC RAO ES of the East was approved in 2014, its goals are:
Read more about the PJSC RAO ES of the East Environmental Policy on the website.
Mechanisms of the PJSC RusHydro’s Environmental Policy implementation
Plan of actions to ensure the implementation of the Environmental Policy
The Plan of actions to ensure the implementation of the Environmental Policy was approved in PJSC RusHydro. Activities of the Plan are implemented in the following areas:
Technical re-equipment and reconstruction of HPPs
As part of the Program of technical re-equipment and reconstruction implemented in the Company, the measures are being taken to modernize and replace hydroelectric generating set of HPPs, as well as repair the hydro turbine equipment in order to eliminate the environmental pollution during the operation of hydroturbine equipment. In 2016, new types of hydro turbines with total capacity of 376.5 MW were installed at the Volzhskaya HPP and new hydro turbines with total capacity of 115 MW were installed at the Votkinskaya HPP. Modernization and repair of hydroturbine equipment took place at the Zhigulevskaya HPP, the Zeyskaya HPP, the Saratovskaya HPP and at the Cascade of Verkhnevolzhskiye HPPs.
In addition, in order to maintain the proper condition of the water protection zones, the Company regularly implements shore protection measures, as well as repairs and reconstruction of the hydraulic structures. In 2016, such works were carried out at the Volzhskaya HPP, the Zhigulevskaya HPP, the Votkinskaya HPP, the Nizhegorodskaya HPP, the Kamskaya HPP, the Saratovskaya HPP, at the Cascade of Verkhnevolzhskiye HPPs and at the Karachay-Cherkessia branch.
RusHydro Group replaces the oil-filled electrical equipment with vacuum or SF6 gas equipment, which does not contain oils, or with equipment that contains less oil. Works were done at the Volzhskaya HPP, the Zhigulevskaya HPP, the Kamskaya HPP, the Cheboksarskaya HPP, the Nizhegorodskaya HPP, the Novosibirskaya HPP, at the Cascade of Verkhnevolzhskiye HPPs, in the subsidiary PJSC Kolymaenergo, and at the Karachay-Cherkessia branch.
Also, the reconstruction of existing treatment facilities and installation of new treatment plants are being implemented at hydro generating facilities. In 2016, the works were carried out at the Cheboksarskaya HPP, the Pauzhetskaya GeoPP and at Dagestan, Northern Ossetian, Karachay-Cherkessia branches.
The Company also carries out other activities aimed at reducing the negative impact on the environment:
Such works were implemented at the Volzhskaya HPP, the Votkinskaya HPP, the Zhigulevskaya HPP, the Kamskaya HPP, the Cheboksarskaya HPP, the Zagorskaya PSHPP, and at the Karachay-Cherkessia branch.
Technical regulation in the field of environmental safety
As part of technical regulation, PJSC RusHydro has applied a number of environmental safety standards.
The Company has approved a corporate standard for the environmental impact assessment: "Hydro power plants. Environmental protection. Assessment of impact on the environment. Procedural Guidelines".
The corporate standard "Hydroelectric Power Plants. Industrial environmental control. Norms and requirements" has been introduced in PJSC RusHydro in order to organize a unified system of production control aimed at ensuring compliance with the requirements and norms established by the current legislation in the field of environmental protection, nature management and environmental protection measures.
For the purposes of administrative use and state supervision, the Company has developed National Standard PNST 15-2014 "Environment protection. Standards for the oil products losses in hydro turbine equipment in operation. Method for calculation of turbine oil losses while operating the hydro turbine equipment". Based on this standard, another standard GOST R (Russian National Standard) with the same name is developed.
See the texts of the standards of PJSC RusHydro at the website.
Environmental Impact Assessment
PJSC RusHydro ensures environmental safety of production activities at all stages of industrial facilities lifecycle. The measures to assess the projects’ impact on the environment (EIA) are conducted prior to the implementation of a new project or before the modification of existing facilities (at the initiation and design stages).
In accordance with the Russian law, the conduct of the EIA procedure is a prerequisite at the stage of the decision-making about the project’s implementation.
At the stage of initiating RusHydro projects, all EIA procedures are organized and conducted, including public hearings of EIA materials.
Activities to comply with the legal requirements in the field of environmental protection
RusHydro carries out its activities in compliance with the planning documentation. During the construction and operation of the facilities, the draft standards for permissible emissions and discharges of pollutants into the environment, draft regulations on waste production and limits on waste disposal, sections of planning documentation with justification of measures for biodiversity conservation are developed.
The documents are approved by the executive authorities that provide state regulation in the field of environmental protection:
Interaction with the expert community
In PJSC RusHydro, there is a permanent expert collegiate body of the Company – the Scientific and Technical Council (STC), which ensures, within its competence, development and implementation of the unified system of technical expertise for research and technology decisions, projects, programs to be complied with the Technical Policy and the applicable technical standard documents.
In order to ensure environmental safety while creating new technical solutions, the Reservoirs and Environmental Protection Section has been created and started functioning as part of STC.
The section includes representatives of research and design institutes, the University of Environmental Engineering, the Institute of Water Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Department of Land Hydrology of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, the Federal Agency for Water Resources.
Mechanisms of the PJSC RAO ES East Environmental Policy implementation
As part of the Environmental Policy of PJSC RAO ES of the East, the Holding companies also implement environmentally oriented initiatives:
The projects are aimed at improving the technical condition of the equipment, but these measures not only increase the basic production performance indicators, but also mitigate the Company's negative impact on the environment.
Initiatives for the mitigation of impact on the environment by RAO ES East
In 2016, PJSC RAO ES of the East continued work for the introduction of Integrated Management System (IMS) – environmental management and occupational health and safety management.
The company carried out works to introduce IMS in the energy companies managed by the Group and in the companies, that provide generation, dispatch, distribution, transfer and sale of electric and heat energy at the territory of the Far East and Ural Federal Districts: JSC Chukotenergo, PJSC Magadanenergo, PJSC Kamchatskenergo, JSC KSEN, JSC Sakhaenergo, PJSC Mobile energy (Peredvizhnaya energetika).
RAO ES of the East is implementing various investment projects for the construction and reconstruction of energy facilities aimed at minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Initiatives are aimed at using environmentally efficient gas turbine equipment, as well as low-waste, resource-saving technologies, for example, the use of natural gas as a fuel with innovative technology for preparation and supply.
In 2016, for generation, transmission, and distribution of heat and electrical energy, the primary efforts of PJSC RAO ES of the East were focused in terms of environmental impact management on the following tasks:
In 2016, the Holding adopted the Program of Innovative Development of the RAO ES of the East for 2016-2020 with a perspective for up to 2025.
One of the priorities of the Holding's innovative development for the medium term is the increase in the efficiency and reliability of the traditional generation process, including the improvement of the ecological compatibility of plants operating on non-renewable energy sources. To achieve this goal, the Holding is planning to introduce waste gas cleaning technologies, as well as to reuse coal generation waste.
Also in 2016, the Khabarovskaya CHPP-1 was reconstructed with transferring to the burning of natural gas using high-tech gas equipment for reducing emissions to the atmosphere.
Protection from air pollution
There is regular monitoring of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere at production facilities of RusHydro Group. In 2016, the amount of emissions did not exceed the threshold criteria.
Emissions to the atmosphere of NOx, SOx, CO, solid substances, tonns
PJSC RusHydro uses renewable energy sources while implementing its activities. In the operation of reservoirs, there are no significant carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, thereby the greenhouse effect is not exacerbated.
Performance of RAO ES of the East on greenhouse gas emissions
Emissions of greenhouse gases are calculated in accordance with the Decree of the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia No.300 of 30.06.2015 and using RD 153-34.0-02.318-2001 “Methodical guidelines for calculation of gross emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere from TPP boilers and boiler houses” and inventory data of the Carbon Trust. The amounts of emissions of greenhouse gases are determined on the basis of the data from specific facility, taking into account the facility’s fuel balance.
Direct emissions of greenhouse gases of RAO ES of the East (scope 1)
The intensity of emissions of greenhouse gases of RAO ES of the East, ton
WATER MANAGEMENT AND WATER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES
The RusHydro Group is one of the primary water consumers in the system of water management complex of the Russian Federation, most of the Company's activities are carried out at water bodies.
RusHydro Group operates water facilities in a strict compliance with the requirements of the legislation. The company receives timely permits for water use and protection of water bodies in the relevant executive authorities. Water intake from the water bodies by PJSC RusHydro does not impact significantly the water sources.
In 2016, the total amount of water extracted by RusHydro Group decreased by 0.97% and amounted to 756,261 thousand m3 (in 2015, the amount was 763,646 thousand m3).
Total amount of water intake by source, thousand m3
In 2016, shore protection works and hydrotechnical repairs took place in RusHydro Group. A number of branches carried out works on:
Total amount of wastewater disposal with the receiving entity specified, thousand m3
Impact of the RAO ES of the East on water bodies
Subsidiaries of PJSC RAO ES of the East also use water bodies for the purpose of withdrawal of water and wastewater disposal. Most of Holding’s companies do not impact significantly the water sources as total amount of water taken by the affiliates is less than 5% of the water body amount.
RAO ES of the East does not take water from water bodies classified as natural area of preferential protection. The sources providing water are not valuable from the point of view of biological diversity. An exception is water intake by JC Chukotenergo at water reservoir on Kazachka river in Anadyr – water intake amounts to 1,602.82 thousand m3 or 20.5% of the total amount of water body – 7.8 million m3.
An important project on reduction of the negative impact on water bodies is the construction of a chemical-biological treatment and sanification station for wastewater of the Khabarovskaya CHPP-2.
In 2016, the amount of repeatedly used water by RAO ES of the East increased by 7.1%.
Production and consumer wastes are generated during the operating activities of the RusHydro Group enterprises. Primarily, there are wastes of hazard class IV and V, they are generated during reconstruction, repair works and maintenance of the equipment at facilities. The RusHydro Group companies do not transport wastes by their own efforts. Generated wastes are transferred on a contractual basis to specialized organizations that have licenses to collect and handle the wastes.
Total amount of wastes in 2016 broken down by hazard class, tons
MEASURES FOR BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
RusHydro Group implements biodiversity conservation activities in five areas.
Activities of RusHydro Group for Biodiversity Conservation
PJSC RusHydro develops international cooperation in the field of environmental protection in regard of biodiversity conservation. In 2016, the second edition of "Compendium of innovative biodiversity solutions for the hydropower sector" was prepared with the participation of PJSC RusHydro within the project of the United Nations Development Program/Global Environment Facility and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation (UNDP Project). The Compendium is a practical guide for designing engineers, environmental specialists, authorities and other stakeholders for the planning of environmentally-oriented activities. The second edition of the Compendium includes the experience of PJSC RusHydro on biodiversity conservation.
Also in 2016, a specialized portal (gisamur.ru) was developed with the participation of PJSC RusHydro to ensure the solution of geo-ecological tasks for planning the development of hydropower potential in the Amur Region. This is a complex geoinformation system that allows analysing the possibilities of hydropower development taking into account environmental risks and issues of biodiversity conservation. This system can be widely used for creation of strategies and plans for the Amur region development, territorial planning, preparation of environmental passports of the subjects of the Russian Federation. The data collected on the geoportal can be used to solve many issues of state-management orientation, as well as those of industrial, scientific and educational significance.
Four years ago, the UNDP Project initiated the environmental project "Bureysky Compromise" as part of the construction of the Nizhne-Bureyskaya HPP in the Amur Region. It is implemented by the Amur Region state-financed institution "Directorate for the Protection and Exploitation of Wildlife and Specially Protected Natural Territories", JSC Nizhne-Bureyskaya HPP, scientific and environmental organizations of the region, mass media. The project is intended to demonstrate the advanced domestic and world principles of conservation of biological diversity in the implementation of large industrial facilities. In addition, the product serves as example of an effective interaction with government bodies, business and society on issues of nature conservation. The "Bureysky Compromise" project is comprehensive and includes many activities for each factor of possible negative impact of the reservoir creation on flora and fauna.
Measure on preservation of the ungulate animal population
The network of feeding stations was arranged in the depth of the Natural Park "Bureysky" in order to concentrate the animals in the centre of the Park and remove them from the construction site.
More than 25 feeding stations have been arranged in the entire territory of the Natural Park. The complexes are equipped with surveillance cameras for photo and video recording, which allows receiving information about the attendance of feeding stations by animals.
Measures on the plants preservation
Five rare and endemic plant species were found in the flood zone of the reservoir of the Nizhne-Bureyskaya HPP. In order to conserve the rare plant species their transfer to new habitats was arranged. This operation was carried out in two stages: one part of the plants was moved in 2015, an additional transfer was carried out in 2016. As a result, specialists managed to move more than 400 specimens to places suitable for growing.
An additional measure of plant support was the "ex-situ" measure in regard of the fern "Alevritopteris Kuna" listed in the Red Book, its main habitats located in the flood zone of the Nizhne-Bureya Reservoir. A specialized climatic chamber was created in the Botanical Garden of Blagoveshchensk, where from the rare fern spores the plants are grown for subsequent introduction into places suitable for growth. Bedding of plants grown in a climatic chamber will be carried out until 2019.
Preservation of the bird species
Measures to minimize the impact on the bird fauna are aimed at the two most vulnerable species: the mandarin duck and the oriental white stork.
The habitat of the mandarin duck happened to be directly into the flood zone in the area of the reservoir of the Nizhne-Bureyskaya HPP in the Amur Region.
The key habitats and natural nesting of this species were threatened with extinction. To conserve the population of the mandarin duck, about 100 artificial nest boxes have been built above the level of the reservoir design marks, mainly on tributaries. According to the monitoring results, it was established that the nest boxes began to be populated with mandarin ducks before the reservoir was filled, which confirmed the efficiency of this measure and determined the necessity to install additional artificial nest boxes. In 2016, installation of additional artificial nest boxes and the monitoring of the effectiveness of this solution was continued in order to maintain the Mandarin population in the process of a water body creation.
The south of the Amur Region is the nesting place for most of the world population of the oriental white stork. The distribution of the population of this species is in the downstream of the Nizhne-Bureyskaya HPP. In order to minimize the possible negative impact on the population of the oriental white stork, the artificial nest supports were installed with the support from UNDP Project.
The nests can hold up the weight of the stork. In 2017, it is planned to install artificial nest supports for the oriental white storks in the Muravievsky Nature Reserve, as the Amur regional public environmental organization "AmurSoES" and the regional "Directorate for the Protection and Exploitation of Wildlife and Specially Protected Natural Territories" filed a request to the energy sector.
Moreover, according to the information of the Amur regional public ecological organization "AmurSoES", in 2016, there were about 100 inhabited nests of oriental white storks in the southern regions of the Amur Region, and more than 40% of them were located on the supports of overhead transmission lines.
The PJSC Yakutskenergo (subsidiary of RAO ES of the East) equips the high-voltage power transmission lines passing through a specially protected natural territory in Ust-Maysky ulus in Yakutia with special bird protection devices. 24 species of birds are protected there.
Also, PJSC Yakutskenergo provides isolation of the power transmission lines with a special cable SIP in the territory of the Natural Park "Living Diamonds of Yakutia", where the high-voltage transmission line 6-10 kW passes through. In addition, the company equips transformer substations on transmission lines with fences and covers to prevent animals from entering into the substation and into the mechanisms of the substation.
Restoration of the fish resources
Due to the specifics of the Company's activity, the RusHydro pays a special attention at the conservation and restoration of fish resources of rivers. For this purpose, since 2003, the annual voluntary planting of fish actions has been taking place at the rivers and reservoirs of HPPs.
In 2016, the Kabardino-Balkarian branch of PJSC RusHydro together with the West Caspian Territorial Administration of the Federal Agency for Fishery released 43 thousand fries of the Russian sturgeon and 71 thousand fries of the Caspian salmon into the Terek River and its tributaries on the territory of the Republic of Dagestan and the Cherek River and the White River in Kabardino-Balkaria.
The companies of RAO ES of the East also implement measures for the artificial reproduction of aquatic biological resources. For example, the Bystrinskaya Small HPP produces an annual release of fry in the rivers of the Kamchatka Region.
Support of protected natural areas
In 2009, an active work to preserve the population of the Caucasian bison listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation and IUCN began in the North Caucasus.
In 2016, with the support of PJSC RusHydro, a specialized open-air cage with an area of 5 hectares for individuals of the Caucasian bison was built on the territory of the Tourmonsky Nature Reserve in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. Open-air cage allows to perform the primary acclimatization of animals grown in captivity for subsequent release into the natural habitat in the territory of the North Ossetian State Nature Reserve.
PJSC RusHydro became sponsor of the international program to restore the population of this endangered species. The cost of financial assistance of PJSC RusHydro in the opening of the open-air cage was about 300 thousand roubles.
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